Crushing, Milling and Material Handling Equipment
Crushers are used for minerals crushing in mining and metallurgy industries. There are different kinds of crushers like: jaw crushers, cone crushers and etc. Jaw crushers are the most common type of crushers that are used in industries as a preliminary crusher. Jaw crusher is appropriate equipment for minerals with high hardness like: iron ore, quartzite and large size ores. For more crushing other types of crushers are used.
Cone crushers are the other type of machines commonly used in cement production units. Crushing is occurred by a force that is applied between ring and cone.
Impact crushers are the most applicable equipment. Minerals are entered through machines input and moved in a cycle between rotating hammers. In roller crushers, crushing is occurred by two rolls and the pressure between rolls is the main crushing driving force. Rollers surface maybe jagged or smooth.
2. Ball mill
Ball mill is a cylindrical compartment that is charged with metallic or ceramic balls and minerals. Rotation driving force is supplied by motor – gearbox system. Balls pouring and colliding with minerals and each other is the main mechanism of milling. Ball mills are used for producing micronized powders in cement production, mineral processing, pharmacy, glazing and etc.
Main parts of a ball mill: 1. Mill foundation, 2. Driving force, 3. Mill input, 4. Mill dram, and 5. Mill out put
Screens are equipment for putting minerals in a specific particle size range. Rotary screens are the most applicable type of these machines in mining and metallurgy industries. Grizzly screen is another kind of equipment for separation of the most large minerals or fine particles.
Feeder is equipment for controlling material feeding rate and is one of the main parts of material handling systems. Feeders are usually used under bins and shoots or material discharge on the belt conveyors and screens. Weigh feeders are useful equipment for controlling weighting rate of materials. Weighting rate control is include:
- Weighting rate control by belt conveyor speed
- Weighting rate control by motor vibrating
5. Belt conveyor
Belt conveyors are equipment for solid material handling for far distances between machines or different parts of plants. Conveyors are used for large and bulky or minerals handling. There are different types of conveyors:
- Belt conveyor
- Bucket elevator
- Drag conveyor
- Chain conveyor
- Roller conveyor
- Screw conveyor
- Flexible roller conveyor
Between different types of conveyors, belt conveyor is the most applicable one and is used in mining, metallurgy, mineral processing and cement industries. Belt conveyors are include polymeric, metallic or leather long or short belts.
6. Bucket elevator
Bucket elevators are designed for material handling vertically and include number of small shovels that move on a belt – pulley system. Shovels move in a vertical line that has a metal cover. Driving systems are embedded top and bottom of the system. Shovels are moved in a cyclic charging and dis-charging path.
7. Skip elevator
Skip elevator is a machine that moves heavy materials between two parts of an industrial plant vertically. Hydraulic, chain or cable skips are used for different material handling systems. Skips usually have cabin which materials are charged in it.